Tuesday, July 16, 2013

Vitamin Supplements - Human Digestion Chemistry

Vitamin Supplements

Stomach acid is necessary for digestion in the stomach but not every thing is completely digested. Some medications are coated to protect the active ingredients. That is the case with many dietary supplements.

The concentration of free H+ ions in a solution determine acidity. In the mouth, the acidity is very low (more basic, chemically) ; the stomach is very acidic and the intestines are basic. 

Starting from the mouth the basic nature of the food bolus is basic. When the bolus hits the stomach the basic food mixture triggers the stomach to prepare for its role in digestion by producing acid. The acid, when it reaches the intestines signals them to produce their products which are basic in nature. It is a signaling system!

If you take your medications or supplements on an empty stomach there is a good chance they will still be active when they reach the intestines where they can be absorbed into the blood stream. The stomach doesn't have a chance to produce enough acid from taking supplements. On a full stomach - there may be too much acid and medications may weaken or be destroyed.

There I go again into my teaching mode! Hope that helps you a bit.


Thursday, January 17, 2013

Just what is Oxidative Phosphorylation?

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Nutrients undergo a chemical process that consists of small changes to release ions that produce a stored chemical called ATP.

It is important to understand the term "oxidation." The small chemical changes actually are a series of oxidation and reduction reactions. When a substance is "oxidized" it gains an oxygen atom. When it loses the oxygen atom it is "reduced." This idea is known by most folks. The chemists call this a "Redox Reaction." It is part of a larger series of chemical reactions called aerobic respiration.

In the process of chemical energy release, in oxidative phosphorylation, the the highest ATP production occurs in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.This is referred to as "aerobic respiration." Respiration can occur in the absence of oxygen but the net production of ATP for celluar functions is far less. The chemists call this "anaerobic respiration."

Here is a list of atoms and ions (an atom with an overall electrical charge) used in aerobic respiration. In fact, oxidative phosphorylation is the last step in aerobic respiration that all your cells use for creating stored energy production in the form of ATP.

Hydrogen Atoms

Here is the Redox Reactions in the form of Oxididation and Reduction

Oxidaion:                            Reduction:

Gain of Oxygen                  Loss of Oxygen
Loss of Hydrogen              Gain of Hydrogen
Loss of Electron                Gain of Electron

The substance that provides the oxygen is the oxidizing agent
The substance that accepts the oxygen is the reducing agent

Therefore, the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized. 

The substance that loses an hydrogen is the oxidizing agent
The substance that gains an hydrogen is the reducing agent

Therefore, the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.

The substance that loses an electron is the oxidizing agent
The substance that gains an electron is the reducing agent

These redox reaction pathways are very efficient in the formation of stored ATP that provides the energy, when needed, for each and every cell in your body to perform its duty.

The energy that is released in oxidative phosphorylation creates a high energy bond that is formed when ATP is formed.

The muscle cells need energy to contract and provide movement. ATP, with its stored energy released, makes it possible for the muscle cell to function.

Basically, this is oxidative phosphorylation!  

Sunday, December 23, 2012

High Fructose Corn Syrup - Metabolism of Fructose

Metabolism of Fructose:

Sucrose, a disaccharide, is composed of equal amounts of fructose and glucose. High fructose corn syrup, as the name implies, is higher in fructose than glucose. Fructose and glucose are both monosaccharides.

Now the question is the ability of the human body cells to metabolize fructose in comparison to glucose. The name High fructose corn syrup that gives the impression that it contains a large amount of fructose. The content of fructose is only 55% versus 50% in sucrose. Sucrose is pure disaccharide of only glucose and fructose. The reason HFCS has more than 50% fructose is because the glucose extracted from corn starch is enzymatically treated ( Man is entering the picture) to convert some of the glucose to fructose. This treatment of the corn starch is done to make the sugar sweeter which is why it is so popular in the food industry. The enzymatically treatment is not done by the body but is artificially administered to increase the level of fructose. Any disorder and/or dysfunction attributed to the consumption of fructose can manifest whether one consumes cane sugar or beet sugar or HFCS. Plain old sucrose is the enemy.

Glucose metabolism is subject to a negative feedback system. When the hypothalamus metabolizes glucose a signaling pathway is initiated that results in the suppression of food intake and the ultimate release of glucose in the process of digestion. This feedback system prevents you from eating too much food. Changes in neuropeptide expression results in suppressed food intake while simultaneously increasing overall energy expenditure for the many very active cells that comprise muscle and neural tissue, for example. This is normal since an energy supply is necessary for active cells.

This is in contrast to fructose metabolism. The brain and the liver possess a unique set of transporters and enzymes that enable fructose to bypass a very important reaction that controls the rate limiting step in glycolysis that is critical in the regulation of ATP production and consumption. Glycogen is a stored sugar chemical in the liver that, when broken down, releases glucose into the bloodstream from the liver. If there is nothing ready to use the excess glucose it is converted to fat. You don't want that!

When the hypothalamus fructose metabolism bypasses the above regulatory step its metabolism rapidly depletes ATP in the hypothalamus. This leads to a series of chemical reactions that make the effects of glucose metabolism and fructose metabolism very different even though they utilize the same signaling pathway to control food intake. Keep this in mind. It is important to understand why fructose can lead to diabetes and obesity.

Fructose is highly correlated with the development of diabetes, obesity and a metabolic syndrome. Fructose metabolism differs from glucose metabolism in that fructose  causes the formation of uric acid. A chemical is acted upon by uric acid that causes a very rapid depletion of ATP, the main source of chemical energy for body cells. When the body senses the loss of stored ATP it signals for food intake to manufacture the ATP it senses it, the body , needs. This chemical is not subject to feedback inhibition such as is the case  for glucose metabolism. This results in a very large ATP depletion. This cycle repeats itself and more food is taken in and the breakdown product are stored as fat. You, in other words, get fatter and fatter. Since the liver is the source for the majority of fructose metabolism the depletion of ATP, in the liver, has a direct effect on other liver metabolic procedures. An increase in uric acid formation takes place after a series of chemical changes in the liver.

This increase in the level of serum uric acid is directly associated with the prediction for the development of obesity and hypertension. Gout is another disorder that is associated with the excess production of uric acid. Increased consumption of HFCS can lead to an increase in the symptoms of gout. 

The metabolic syndrome results in laboratory test animals resulted in increases in obesity, visceral fat accumulation, fatty liver and elevated insulin levels. Changes in other chemicals after fructose consumption may account for increased food intake that could result in weight gain. 

Keep in mind the consumption of any of the basic sources of sugar from sugar cane, sugar beets and corn starch all contain fructose. Abuse of sugar, any sugar, intake has serious effects on your health.


Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Symptoms of Diabetes show Partial Remission

Diabetic patients, in a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association, reported that 11% of those patients who undertook an intensive diet and exercise program showed a partial disease remission at the end of one year. This compares with only 2% that didn't follow the intensive program.

Patients reported shorter symptoms of diabetes effects, a greater weight loss and better physical fitness gains form the intensive program. The above results saw improvements in blood glucose levels, the researchers said.

Please refer to other posts in this blog for follow up information related to exercise and diet in glucose level control in diabetics. 

Enjoy the blessings associated with the birth of the Christ Child. 

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to all!